Magnitude of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria and proteinuria in 7-12 years old school children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Background: Hematuria or proteinuria or mixed hematuria and proteinuria are one of the most important signs of renal or bladder disease in children and it can represent a process that is simple and benignor complex and life threatening.
Objective: To assess the prevalence of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria and proteinuria in apparently healthy school children between the ages of 7-12 years in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional survey done in apparently healthy school children (7-12 years of age) from April 2014 to May 2014. A dipstick test (Multistix, Bayer Diagnostics, Miles Inc., USA) was performed on the un spun urine specimen by trained laboratory technician, with reagent strip designed to react progressively producing color changes at given intervals.
Results: In the first screening out of 382 school children 32 (8.4 %) tested positive for hematuria. Among these 7 (1.8%) were males and 25 (6.5%) were females (p=0.009). The prevalence of hematuria was higher in the 7-8 age group (19%) as compared to 11-12 year old children (5.7%) and this is statistically significant (p=0.013). 75 students (19.6%) were tested positive for proteinuria. Glycosuria and nitrituria was present in less than 1%. In the second screening, 14 children (3.7%) had isolated hematuria and 2 children (0.5%) mixed hematuria and proteinuria making the prevalence of hematuria and proteinuria 4.2% and 0.5% respectively. Among the 16 children with hematuria 6 children (37.5%) had red blood cell (RBC) casts in their urine suggesting glomerulonephritis as the possible cause of hematuria.
Conclusions: The study demonstrated that the prevalence of hematuria (4.2%) and proteinuria (0.5%) is higher in Ethiopian children than most other African children and worldwide but nitrituria and glycosuria were rare