A-5-year analysis of pediatric brain tumors in a tertiary care center, Sub-saharan African country
Keywords:brain tumor , children , survival , Sub-saharan Africa
Tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are the second most common group of cancers in childhood, exceeded only by leukemias. It is the most common pediatric solid tumor accounting for 20% of all childhood malignancies. The pattern and outcome of these tumors in children have not been studied in Ethiopia.
Objective: To study the epidemiology and outcome of pediatric brain tumors in a tertiary care center.
Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of medical records of children less than 15 years of age diagnosed with a primary brain tumor in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital Department of pediatrics from January 1, 2014, to January 1, 2019 was done.
Results: There were 86 children with the diagnosis of brain tumor in the study period and 49/86 (57%) were males and the male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The age at presentation ranges from 2.4-14 years (mean 7.1 years). Headache was the commonest presentation among 65/86 (75.5%) children while early morning vomiting accounted for 57/86 (66.2%). Ataxia and gait abnormality contributed to 42/86 (48.8%). Among the 41 children whose pathologic result was available, the commonest tumor was found to be medulloblastoma 13/41 (31.7%), followed by astrocytoma 8/41 (19.5 %) and craniopharyngioma 5/41 (12.1%). Six months and 5 years of survival was 40% (35/86) and 2.3% (2/86) respectively.
Conclusion: medulloblastoma and astrocytoma were common brain tumors in children, we had the longest PSI and as a result very low survival which calls for early diagnosis and treatment
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